• V. CHEKHUN R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, NAS of Ukraine, 03022 Kyiv, Ukraine
  • О. MARTYNYUK R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, NAS of Ukraine, 03022 Kyiv, Ukraine
  • Ye. LUKIANOVA R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, NAS of Ukraine, 03022 Kyiv, Ukraine
  • O. MUSHII R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, NAS of Ukraine, 03022 Kyiv, Ukraine
  • T. ZADVORNYI R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, NAS of Ukraine, 03022 Kyiv, Ukraine
  • N. LUKIANOVA R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, NAS of Ukraine, 03022 Kyiv, Ukraine




breast cancer in young women, clinicopathological and molecular-biological features, tumor microenvironment


The statistical data of the recent decades demonstrate a rapid growth of breast cancer (BCa) incidence and a tendency toward its increase especially in young women. In the structure of morbidity of women in the age group of 18—29 years, BCa ranks first and in the age range of 15—39 years, BCa is one of the leading causes of mortality. According to the data of the epidemiological and clinical studies, the young age is an independent unfavorable prognostic factor of BCa that is associated with an unfavorable prognosis and low survival rates and is considered an important predictor of the disease aggressiveness, a high risk of metastasis and recurrence. The variability of clinicopathological and molecular-biological features of BCa in patients of different age groups as well as the varying course of the disease and different responses to the therapy are mediated by many factors. The analysis of the literature data on the factors and mechanisms of BCa initiation in patients of different age groups demonstrates that the pathogen- esis of BCa depends not only on the molecular-genetic alterations but also on the metabolic disorders caused by the current social and household rhythm of life and nutrition peculiarities. All these factors affect both the general con- dition of the body and the formation of an aggressive microenvironment of the tumor lesion. The identified features of transcriptome and the differential gene expression give evidence of different regulations of the immune response and the metabolic processes in BCa patients of different age groups. Association between the high expression of the components of the stromal microenvironment and the inflammatory immune infiltrate as well as the increased vascu- larization of the tumor lesion has been found in BCa tissue of young patients. Proving the nature of the formation of the landscape comprising molecular-genetic, cytokine, and immune factors of the tumor microenvironment will undoubtedly contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of tumor growth allowing for the development of algorithms for delineating the groups at high risk of tumor progression, which requires more careful monitoring and personalized treatment approach. Th s will be helpful in the development of innovative technologies for complex BCa treatment.


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Submitted: May 10, 2023




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