• E.A. Domina R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology
  • O.L. Kopylenko National Commission for Radiation Protection of Ukraine



chromosome aberrations, genome instability, radiation emergency, radiomitigators, stochastic effects


The real threat of emergency situations in Ukraine dictates the need to take into account the experience of previous radiation accidents, during which a significant part of the population was exposed to low-dose radiation. In such a case clinical manifestations of irradiation were mostly absent, while the danger of stochastic (carcinogenic) effects remained. Therefore, at present, the strategy of radiation protection of the population should be aimed at revising and choosing effective and low-toxic anti-radiation means. The main criterion for the development of stochastic consequences of exposure is radiation-induced genome instability, which is a promoter of carcinogenesis. The use of radiomitigators, which are able to weaken the harmful effect of ionizing radiation on critical highly radiosensitive systems of the human body, is promising. Our research showed the radiomitigative effect of inosine in cultured human T-lymphocytes on the genetic level with the significant decrease in the frequency of gamma-induced chromosome aberrations. The results experimentally justified an expediency of use of radiomitigators in the conditions of an emergency situation to minimize the occurrence and development of stochastic effects in population.


Domina EA. Anti radiation means: classification and mechanisms. Problems Radiat Med Radiobiol 2015; 20: 42–54.

Legeza VI, Grebenyuk AN, Drachev IS. Radiomitigators: Classification, pharmacologic properties and application prospects. Biol Bull 2019; 46: 161–9.

Domina EA. Radiogenic Cancer: Epidemiology and Primary Prevention. Kyiv: Naukova Dumka, 2016. 196 p. (in Russian).

Domina EA. Chernobyl Accident: Early and Remote Medical-and-Biological Effects. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Saarbruken, Germany, 2016. 106 p.

Kopylenko OL, Chekhun VF, Domina EA. Challenges of radiation catastrophes: lessons of Chornobyl (1986-2021 рр.) (in Ukrainian). uploads/documents/36961.pdf. Accessed: September 30, 2021.

Druzhyna MO, Domina EA, Lypska АІ. Radiation carcinogenesis. In: Chekhun VF, ed. Oncology: Lectures. Kyiv: Zdorovia Ukrainy, 2010: 53–66 (in Ukrainian).

Christians FC, Newcomb TG, Loeb LA. Potential sources of multiple mutations in human cancer. Prev Med 1995; 24: 329–32.

Galstyan IA, Nugis VYu, Torubarov FS, et al. The problem of establishing the connection between the developed cancer and radiation in the conditions of production. Med Radiol Radiat Safety 2020; 65: 76–82.

Khanson LP, Yevtushenko VI. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. Vopr Oncol 2006; 52: 3–11 (in Russian).

Chekhun VF, Domina EA. Can SARS-CoV-2 change individual radiation sensitivity of the patients recovered from COVID-19? (experimental and theoretical background). Exp Oncol 2021; 43: 277–80. exp-oncology.2312-8852.vol-43-no-3.16554

Domina E. Possible effects of the exposure to ionizing radiation on the patients recovered from COVID-19. ScienceRise: Biol Sci 2022; 1: 4–7.

Chekhun VF, Domina EA. Modern view on the stochastic effects of ionizing radiation. Oncologiya 2022; 24: 1–5 (in Ukrainian).

Vladimirov VG, Krasilnikov II, Arapov OV. Radioprotectors: Structure and Function. Kyiv: Naukova dumka, 1989. 264 p. (in Russian).

Legeza VI, Vladimirov VG. New classification of preventive facilities. Radiat Biol Radioecol 1998; 38: 416–25 (in Russian).

Vasin МV. Antiradiation Medicines. Мoscow, 2010. 180 p (in Russian).

Grebeniuk AN, Legeza VI. Antiradiation Properties of Interleukin-1. “Izdatelstvo Foliant”, 2012. 216 p. (in Russian).

Maurya DK, Devasagayam TPA, Nair CKK. Some novel approaches for radioprotection and the beneficial effect of natural products. Ind J Experim Biol 2006; 44: 93–114.

Asadullina NR, Usacheva AM, Smirnova VS, Gudkov SV. Antioxidative and radiation modulating properties of guanosine 5’-monophosphate. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2010; 29: 786–99.

Shimisu M, Shimamura M, Owaki T, et al. Anti¬angiogenic and antitumor activity of IL-27. J Immunol 2006; 176: 7317–24.

Weiss JF, Landauer MR. Protection against ionizing radiation by antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals. Toxicology 2003; 189: 1–20.

Drachiov IS, Legeza VI, Turlakov YuS. Prospects for use of selenium compounds as radioprotectors. Radiat Biol Radioecol 2013; 53: 475–80.

Virag L, Szabo C. Purines inhibit poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase activation and modulate oxidant-induced cell death. FACEB J 2001; 15: 99–107.

Buckley S, Barsky L, Weinber K, Warburton D. In vivo inosine protects alveolar epithelial type 2 cells against hyperoxia-induced DNA damage through MAP kinase signaling. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2005; 288: L569–75.

Tomaselli B, Podhraski V, Heftberger V, et al. Purine nucleoside-mediated protection of chemical hypoxia-induced neuronal injures involves p42/44 MARK activation. Neurochem Int 2005; 46: 513–21.

Vasin MV. Classification of anti-radiation of the modern state and prospect of development of radiation pharmacology. Radiat Biol Radioecol 2013; 53: 459–67 (in Russian).

Weiss JF, Landauer MR. History and development of radiation protective agents. Int J Radiat Biol 2009; 85: 539–73.

Epperly MW, Wang H, Jones JA, et al. Antioxidant-chemoprevention diet ameliorates late effects of total-body irradiation and supplements radioprotection by MnSOD-plasmid liposome administration. Radiat Res 2011; 175: 759–65.

Shannon MF, Coles LS, Vadas MA, Cockerill PN. Signals for activation of the GM-CSF promoter and enhancer T cells. Crit Rev Immunol 1997; 17: 301–23.

Wu SG, Miyamoto T. Radioprotection of the intestinal crypis of mice by recombinant human interleukin-1 alpha. Radiat Res 1990; 123: 112–5.

Chekhun VF, Domina EA, Demchenko OM. A method of decline of frequency of spontaneous and radiation induced genetic damages in human somatic non-malignant cells. Patent of Ukraine for utility model. UA 61604. 2011 (in Ukrainian).




How to Cite

Domina, E., & Kopylenko, O. (2023). ROLE OF RADIOPROTECTORS IN MINIMIZATION OF STOCHASTIC EFFECTS OF RADIATION INCIDENTS. Experimental Oncology, 44(3), 186–189.