Oxamate, an inhibitor of lactate dehydrogenase, can stimulate M2 polarization of peritoneal macrophages in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma
Keywords:inhibitor of lactate dehydrogenase, Lewis lung carcinoma, M2-polarization, macrophages, oxamate
Summary. Background: Inhibition of aerobic glycolysis of cancer cells is considered a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neoplasms. Some inhibitors of energy metabolism can affect not only tumor cells but also the functional polarization of tumor-associated macrophages, which may either enhance the antitumor effect of such agents or impair their antitumor efficacy. Aim: To investigate the effect of oxamate, a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) inhibitor, on the polarization of peritoneal macrophages (PMP) in both intact mice and mice with transplanted Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC). Materials and Methods: The low-metastatic LLC variant, LLC/R9, was transplanted to female C57Bl/6 mice. Sodium oxamate was used as the test agent at concentrations of 0.02, 0.2, and 2 mg/ml. Macrophage polarization in tumor-bearing mice was estimated on day 23 after tumor transplantation by assessing nitric oxide (NO) production and arginase activity as functional indices of PMPs polarization. Results: Oxamate can affect the functional polarization of PMPs in both intact mice and animals with transplanted LLC/R9. Oxamate in all studied concentrations changed the markers of PMPs polarization in intact mice (decreasing NO levels and activating arginase activity) that indicated the stimulation of M2 polarization. In tumor-bearing animals, stimulation of M2 polarization is observed at low concentrations of oxamate (0.02 mg/ml), but its high concentrations (2.0 mg/ml) causes M1 polarization, which is characterized by three-fold increase in the level of NO and a decrease in the level of arginase activity. Conclusion: Oxamate, an inhibitor of LDH, can stimulate M2 polarization of peritoneal macrophages of mice bearing LLC in a dose-dependent manner.
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