Effects of brachytherapy on cytogenetic parameters and oxidative status in peripheral blood lymphocytes of gynecologic cancer patients
Keywords:192Ir high-dose-rate sources, cytogenetic analysis, high-energy high-dose-rate brachytherapy, peripheral blood lymphocytes, radiation-induced chromosome aberrations
Summary. Background: The state-of-the-art brachytherapy technologies with high-dose sources of 60Co and 192Ir within contemporary treatment protocols for cancer patients allow achieving maximum dose distribution in the clinical target and with minimum radiation exposure of surrounding organs and tissues. For minimization and overcoming the early and late radiation complications, development of respective radiobiological criteria along with perfecting of physical and technical characteristics of the ionizing radiation sources are required. Aim: To study the effect of 192Ir radiation on the chromosomal aberrations and prooxidant/antioxidant status of blood lymphocytes in gynecological cancer patients. Materials and Methods: The patients (n = 45) with endometrial, cervical and secondary cancer of vagina were enrolled in the study. For brachytherapy, the irradiation of vaginal mucosa was conducted using “GammaMed plus” device for contact radiation therapy with 192Ir source. Prior to irradiation and in 20–24 h after brachytherapy session, the venous blood samples were obtained and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were cultured for cytogenetic analysis. The prooxidant/antioxidant status was determined in hemolysates by the method of hydrogen peroxide-induced chemiluminescence. Results: The average level of spontaneous chromosome aberrations in PBL of the patients was (7.8 ± 0.4) per 100 metaphases, which is more than twice higher than the upper limit of the average population values. The frequency of chromosome aberrations in PBL of patients after brachytherapy session was (15.3 ± 1.0) per 100 metaphases. An increased intensity of O2- generation by PBL after brachytherapy session was also noticed. Conclusion: Local irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy featuring the first dose fraction of brachytherapy induces extra chromosomal aberrations in PBL of gynecological cancer patients and intensifies prooxidant processes in the blood.
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