Surgical excision promotes tumor growth and metastasis by promoting expression of mmp-9 and vegf in a breast cancer model

Zhao T., Xia W.H., Zheng M.Q., Lu C.Q., Han X., Sun Y.J.

Surgery is still the main curative therapeutic modality for breast cancer. Although surgery often results in the successful removal of the primary tumor, its process could increase the risk of metastases of residual cancer cells. Understanding of the connection between breast cancer metastasis and surgical wound will lead to the establishment of a proper treatment strategy for postoperative cancer patient. Aim: To study the influence of surgical procedure on the metastasis of primary breast cancer. Methods: We established MDA-MB-435 human breast cancer xenograft model. Levels of Pro-matrix metalloproteinase 9 (Pro-MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in host serum and tumors were tested at different time points with ELISA and zymography and correlated to tumor growth and postoperative metastasis. Results: Our study demonstrated surgical wound had promoting effect on tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis of human breast cells, if tumor cells remain in bodies. This effect might be related to the postoperative interaction of cancer and host cells, which resulted in expression of Pro-MMP-9. Surgical process could also increase the VEGF expression in tumor tissues. Conclusions: Surgical wound-produced host Pro-MMP-9 and tumor cell VEGF might be important mediators leading to metastasis of residual breast cancer after surgery.

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