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Respiratory insufficiency related to copd accelerates systemic inflammation, under-nutrition, and angiogenesis in esophageal malignancies
A number of esophageal cancer patients suffer from respiratory insufficiency due to the coexistence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Aim: To test the hypothesis that COPD-related systemic hypoxemia may result in accelerated inflammation, malnutrition, and angiogenesis in esophageal cancer patients. Methods: Serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, transferrin, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, TNF- a, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB), and midkine and patient BMI and weight-loss rate were determined and compared with blood oxygenation status (pO2, SaO2) in 35 esophageal cancer patients and 42 controls. Results: The incidence of cachexia tended to be higher in patients with systemic hypoxemia (67% vs 40%, p = 0.169). Mean SaO2 level was also significantly decreased in cachectic patients (90.3 vs 93.3%, p = 0.026) and pO2 exhibited a similar trend (58.0 vs 63.4 mmHg, p = 0.120). Transferrin (234 vs 316 mg/dl, p = 0.005) and albumin (31.9 vs 37.1 mg/dl, p = 0.002) concentrations were reduced and CRP was elevated (129.9 vs 54.7 mg/l, p = 0.004) in hypoxemic patients and correlated with pO2 (r = 0.47, p = 0.016; r = 0.48, p = 0.012; r = –0.37, p = 0.064) and SaO2 (r = 0.52, p = 0.006; r = 0.53, p = 0.006; r = –0.40, p = 0.042). Interleukin-6 (9.97 vs 2.21 pg/ml, p = 0.005) and midkine (2101 vs 944 pg/ml, p < 0.001) were elevated and PDGF-BB was decreased (12.2 vs 17.3 pg x 10-6/PLT, p = 0.014) in hypoxemic compared with normoxemic patients. Interleukin-6 and midkine negatively correlated with pO2 (r = –0.44, p = 0.016; r = –0.42, p = 0.011) and SaO2 (r = –0.54, p = 0.003; r = –0.57, p < 0.0001) and PDGF-BB correlated positively (r = 0.53, p = 0.003; r = 0.44, p = 0.020). Interleukin-8 level was affected by pO2 (r = -0.55, p = 0.015) and SaO2 (r = –0.55, p = 0.018) only in hypoxemic patients. Conclusions: COPD-related systemic hypoxemia negatively affects the status of esophageal cancer patients by accelerating inflammation, under-nutrition, and angiogenesis.
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