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Use of multiple biomarkers for evaluation of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity in patients with acute myeloid leukemia
To assess cardiac toxicity of anthracycline treatment with six biomarkers of cardiac injury: myoglobin, creatine kinase MB (CK-MB mass), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP), glycogen phosphorylase BB (GPBB). Methods: We evaluated anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity in 12 acute myeloid leukemia patients (mean age 51.3 ± 10.7 years, 7 females). All biomarkers were measured at the baseline, after first chemotherapy (CT) with anthracyclines, after last CT with anthracyclines (total cumulative dose 479.8 ± 106.2 mg/m2) and 6 months thereafter. Values above the reference range were considered elevated. Results: GPBB increased above the cut-off (7.30 µg/L) in 2 (16.7%) patients after first CT, in 3 (25.0%) patients after last CT and remained elevated in 2 (16.7%) patients within 6 months after CT. CTnI became elevated (above 0.40 µg/L) in 1 (8.3%) patient after first and last CT and within 6 months after CT. CTnT remained negative (below 0.01 µg/L) during CT in all patients. Six months after CT, delayed cTnT positivity was found in 1 (8.3%) patient. All patients with cTnI or cTnT positivity had elevated GPBB. Other biomarkers (myoglobin, CK-MB mass, H-FABP) remained within the reference range in all patients. Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggest that GPBB could be a new promising marker for detection of anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity and probably superior to cardiac troponins. The predictive value for development of cardiomyopathy in the future is not clear and will be evaluated during a prospective follow-up.
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