Use of multiple biomarkers for evaluation of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity in patients with acute myeloid leukemia

Horacek J.M., Tichy M., Jebavy L., Pudil R., Ulrychova M., Maly J.

To assess cardiac toxicity of anthracycline treatment with six biomarkers of cardiac injury: myoglobin, creatine kinase MB (CK-MB mass), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP), glycogen phosphorylase BB (GPBB). Methods: We evaluated anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity in 12 acute myeloid leukemia patients (mean age 51.3 ± 10.7 years, 7 females). All biomarkers were measured at the baseline, after first chemotherapy (CT) with anthracyclines, after last CT with anthracyclines (total cumulative dose 479.8 ± 106.2 mg/m2) and 6 months thereafter. Values above the reference range were considered elevated. Results: GPBB increased above the cut-off (7.30 µg/L) in 2 (16.7%) patients after first CT, in 3 (25.0%) patients after last CT and remained elevated in 2 (16.7%) patients within 6 months after CT. CTnI became elevated (above 0.40 µg/L) in 1 (8.3%) patient after first and last CT and within 6 months after CT. CTnT remained negative (below 0.01 µg/L) during CT in all patients. Six months after CT, delayed cTnT positivity was found in 1 (8.3%) patient. All patients with cTnI or cTnT positivity had elevated GPBB. Other biomarkers (myoglobin, CK-MB mass, H-FABP) remained within the reference range in all patients. Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggest that GPBB could be a new promising marker for detection of anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity and probably superior to cardiac troponins. The predictive value for development of cardiomyopathy in the future is not clear and will be evaluated during a prospective follow-up.

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