The use of cardiac biomarkers in detection of cardiotoxicity associated with conventional and high-dose chemotherapy for acute leukemia

Horacek J.M., Vasatova M., Tichy M., Pudil R., Jebavy L., Maly J.

Aim: Monitoring of cardiotoxicity of conventional and high-dose chemotherapy (HD-CT) with multiple biomarkers of cardiac injury — glycogen phosphorylase BB (GPBB), heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP), cardiac troponins (cTnT, cTnI), creatine kinase MB (CK-MB mass), myoglobin. Methods: A total of 47 adult acute leukemia patients were studied — 24 patients treated with conventional CT containing anthracyclines (ANT) and 23 patients treated with HD-CT (myeloablative preparative regimen) followed by hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Cardiac biomarkers were assessed prior to treatment (before CT/HD-CT), after first CT with ANT, after last CT with ANT in the first group, after HD-CT and after HCT in the second group. Values above the reference range were considered elevated. Results: Before CT/HD-CT, all biomarkers of cardiac injury were below the cut-offs in all patients. GPBB increased above the cut-off (7.30 μg/L) in 4 (16.7%) patients after first CT and in 5 (20.8%) patients after last CT with ANT. GPBB increased above the cut-off in 5 (21.7%) patients after HD-CT and remained elevated in 5 (21.7%) patients after HCT. CTnI became elevated (above 0.40 μg/L) in 2 (8.3%) patients after first and last CT with ANT. Both patients with cTnI positivity had elevated GPBB. Other tested biomarkers remained below the cut-offs during the study. Conclusion: Our results suggest that GPBB could become a sensitive biomarker for detection of acute cardiotoxicity associated with conventional CT containing ANT and HD-CT followed by HCT. The predictive value for development of cardiomyopathy in the future is not known and should be evaluated during a prospective follow-up. Based on our data, a larger prospective and multicenter study would be most desirable to define the potential role of new circulating biomarkers in the assessment of cardiotoxicity in oncology.

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